Автор: Смирнова Татьяна Николаевна
Истоки парикмахерского искусства уходят в глубокую древность. Известно, что уже за 2-3 тысячи лет до новой эры нашим предкам было свойственно украшать свою внешность прическами. Проходили века, постепенно человек вносил в создаваемые им предметы, в том числе в прическу, свое представление о красоте, которое отражает и его индивидуальный вкус, и общий эстетический идеал, присущий конкретной эпохе. Но одежда и прическа оказываются также явлениями утилитарными и социальными. У разных народов сформировался свой стиль и определенные традиции, связанные с природными условиями страны и положением человека в обществе.
Автор: Смирнова Татьяна Николаевна
Service and Tourism College №29
The history of hairdressing art.
English teacher: Smirnova Tatjana
The origins of hairdressing art go back to antiquity.
Peculiar haircuts were created in Ancient Egypt. They required specially trained slaves. Egyptians dyed their hair with henna and decorated it with ornamental elements.
Fair hair color was considered fashionable in ancient Greece. In the classical period casual men's hairstyle was short -cropped hair, the "total" (ie, from temple to temple) rather short beard and moustache.
Greek women wore their hair long and knew several types of hairstyles, but classic hairstyle can be considered the so-called Greek knot – “corimbos”.
Renaissance was an important stage in the history of hairdressing art. At this time in Italy in men was considered fashionable hairstyle in two basic types: smooth or hair combed back, or wearing hair with bangs. Smoothly shaved face.
Women were considered particularly beautiful golden hair. High forehead was considered beautiful. Hairstyle could be very complex and sophisticated. It consisted of a combination of the braid, curls, decorated with pearl beads, veils, ribbons. Sometimes young girls wore loose hair.
In the XVII century, France became a trendsetter in the field of fashion and hairstyles. The Baroque style, that best expressed the tastes of the aristocracy of the time, was finally settled. Hairstyles of the Baroque era were entirely dependent on court etiquette and characterized by splendor, stiffness, a huge amount of jewelery and complex technology.
In the first half of the XVIII century there appeared the Rococo style.
It took several hours to create a fashionable hairstyle – “kuafyur”. Women tried to keep it intact for a few days . Sometimes a head would host a whole basket with fruits or even the layout of the ship with rigging and sails. Sometimes a mass of jewelry that exceeded the weight of the head was placed into a hairstyle.
The second half of the XVIII century - the period of the Classicism. Men would wear short-cut hair; hair powder was out of use. Women hairstyles had variety of forms.
After the fall of Napoleon, 20s - 30s years see the birth of a new style- the Romanticism.
Men wore short, curly hair raised at the forehead.
Russia focused on France in the field of fasion. Many salons were owned by French masters. Fashion magazines were discharged from Paris, where even hairdressers’ contests were held. In 1860, the Russian masters Agapov and Andreev won the first prize in the contest , and in 1888 - 1890s, Ivan Andreev received a number of awards Honorary diploma of Distinguished Professor of Hairdressing for his hairstyles .
With the invention of a perm there was a real revolution in the art of hairdressing.
Fashion designers ennobled punk style, creating haircuts "hedgehog" , "cascade" .
Whatever is the fashion, each person can choose his own haircut and hairstyle. To be beautiful and fashionable every day.